Medal of Honor Awardee
John A. Chapman
Summary of Action: Battle at Takur Ghar
Sergeant Chapman enlisted in the Air Force on Sept. 27, 1985, as an information systems operator, but felt called to be part of Air Force special operations. In 1989, he cross-trained to become an Air Force combat controller.
According to friends and family, Sergeant Chapman had a tendency to make the difficult look effortless, and consistently sought new challenges. Dating back to his high school days, he made the varsity soccer squad as a freshman. Also an avid muscle-car enthusiast, he rebuilt and maintained an old Pontiac GTO.
Combat control would prove to be another instance of “making it look easy.”
Combat control training is more than two years long and amongst the most rigorous in the U.S. military. Only about one in ten Airmen who start the program graduate.
From months of rigorous physical fitness training to multiple joint schools – including military SCUBA, Army static-line and freefall, air traffic control, and combat control schools – Sergeant Chapman is remembered as someone who could do anything put in front of him.
“One remembers two types of students – the sharp ones and the really dull ones – and Chapman was in the sharp category,” said Ron Childress, a former Combat Control School instructor. Combat Control School is one of the most difficult points of a combat controller’s training program, from completing arduous tasks without sleeping for days, to running miles with weighted rucksacks and a gas mask.
“During one of his first days at Combat Control School, I noticed a slight smirk on his face like [the training] was too simple for him…and it was,” said Childress.
Following Combat Control School, Sergeant Chapman served with the 1721st Combat Control Squadron at Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina, where he met his wife, Valerie, in 1992. They had two daughters, who were the center of Sergeant Chapman’s world even when he was away from home – which was common in the combat control career field.
“He would come home from a long trip and immediately have on his father hat – feeding, bathing, reading and getting his girls ready for bed,” said Chief Master Sgt. Michael West, who served with Sergeant Chapman through Combat Control School, a three-year tour in Okinawa, Japan, and at Pope Air Force Base. “They were his life and he was proud of them…to the Air Force he was a great hero…what I saw was a great father.”
The Battle of Takur Ghar
In conjunction with Operation Anaconda in March 2002, small reconnaissance teams were tasked to establish observation posts in strategic locations in Afghanistan, and when able, direct U.S. air power to destroy enemy targets. The mountain of Takur Ghar was an ideal spot for such an observation post, with excellent visibility to key locations. For Sergeant Chapman and his joint special operations teammates, the mission on the night of March 3 was to establish a reconnaissance position on Takur Ghar and report al Qaeda movement in the Sahi-Kowt area.
“This was very high profile, no-fail job, and we picked John,” said retired Air Force Col. Ken Rodriguez, Sergeant Chapman’s commander at the time. “In a very high-caliber career field, with the highest quality of men – even then – John stood out as our guy.”
During the initial insertion onto Afghanistan’s Takur Ghar mountaintop on March 4, the MH-47 “Chinook” helicopter carrying Sergeant Chapman and the joint special operations reconnaissance team was ambushed. A rocket propelled grenade struck the helicopter and bullets ripped through the fuselage. The blast ripped through the left side of the Chinook, throwing Navy Petty Officer 1st Class Neil Roberts off the ramp of the helicopter onto the enemy-infested mountaintop below.
The severely damaged aircraft was unable to return for Petty Officer Roberts, and performed a controlled crash landing a few miles from the mountaintop. Thus began the chain of events that led to unparalleled acts of valor by numerous joint special operations forces, the deaths of seven U.S. servicemen and now, 16 years later, posthumous award of the Medal of Honor to Sergeant Chapman.
Alone, against the elements and separated from his team with enemy personnel closing in, Petty Officer Roberts was in desperate need of support. The remaining joint special operations team members, fully aware of his precarious situation, immediately began planning a daring rescue attempt that included returning to the top of Takur Ghar where they had just taken heavy enemy fire.
As the team returned to Petty Officer Roberts’ last-known position, now on a second MH-47, the entrenched enemy forces immediately engaged the approaching helicopter with heavy fire. Miraculously, the helicopter, although heavily damaged, was able to successfully offload the remaining special operations team members and return to base. Sergeant Chapman, upon exiting the helicopter, immediately charged uphill through the snow toward enemy positions while under heavy fire from three directions.
Once on the ground, the team assessed the situation and moved quickly to the high ground. The most prominent cover and concealment on the hilltop were a large rock and tree. As they approached the tree, Sergeant Chapman received fire from two enemy personnel in a fortified position. He returned fire, charged the enemy position and took out the enemy combatants within.
Almost immediately, the team began taking machine gun fire from another fortified enemy position only 12 meters away. Sergeant Chapman deliberately moved into the open to engage the new enemy position. As he heroically engaged the enemy, he was struck by a burst of gunfire and became critically injured.
Sergeant Chapman regained his faculties and continued to fight relentlessly despite his severe wounds. He sustained a violent engagement with multiple enemy fighters, for over an hour through the arrival of the quick reaction force, before paying the ultimate sacrifice. In performance of these remarkably heroic actions, Sergeant Chapman is credited with saving the lives of his teammates.
The upgrade to MOH
“John was always selfless – it didn’t just emerge on Takur Ghar – he had always been selfless and highly competent, and thank God for all those qualities,” said Col. Rodriguez. “He could have hunkered down in the bunker and waited for the (Quick Reaction Force) and (Combat Search and Rescue) team to come in, but he assessed the situation and selflessly gave his life for them.”
Sergeant Chapman was originally awarded the Air Force Cross for his actions; however, following a review of Air Force Cross and Silver Star recipients directed by then-Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, the Secretary of the Air Force recommended Sergeant Chapman’s Air Force Cross be upgraded to the Medal of Honor.
In accordance with Air Force policy whereby Medal of Honor recipients are automatically promoted one grade on the first day of the month following the award, Sergeant Chapman will be posthumously promoted to the rank of master sergeant on Sept. 1, 2018.
Although Sergeant Chapman will be awarded the Medal of Honor, family and friends have expressed his humility and how he would react today, if he were here.
“If John were to find out he received the Medal of Honor, he would be very humbled and honored,” said Chief Master Sergeant West. “He was just doing his job, and that’s what he would say at this moment.”
His widow, Valerie Nessel, has always known her husband was capable of such greatness, but asserts that John wouldn’t be anxious to be in the spotlight.
“[John] would want to recognize the other men that lost their lives,” said Valerie. “Even though he did something he was awarded the Medal of Honor for, he would not want the other guys to be forgotten – that they were part of the team together.”
“I think he would say that his Medal of Honor was not just for him, but for all of the guys who were lost,” she added.
In total, seven service members lost their lives during the Battle of Takur Ghar:
Petty Officer 1st Class Neil Roberts – U.S. Navy SEAL
Technical Sergeant John Chapman – U.S. Air Force combat control
Senior Airman Jason Cunningham – U.S. Air Force pararescue
Corporal Matthew Commons – U.S. Army Ranger
Sergeant Bradley Crose – U.S. Army Ranger
Specialist Marc Anderson – U.S. Army Ranger
Sergeant Philip Svitak – U.S. Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment
“John would have, so I’ll say it for him. Every American who set foot on that mountaintop acted with great courage and selflessness, and deserve all of our praise and admiration for the sacrifices they made,” said Col. Rodriguez.
Tech. Sgt. John A.Chapman graduated from Windsor Locks High School, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, in 1983. He enlisted in the Air Force on Sept. 27, 1985, as an information systems operator and later volunteered to be a combat controller, tasked to solve air and ground problems across the spectrum of conflict and crisis.
From basic training, Chapman's first assignment as an information systems operator was at the 1987th Information Systems Squadron at Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado. He entered the combat controller training pipeline at Lackland AFB, Texas, in 1989. Immediately following a successful graduation from the CCT courses, he proceeded to his first Special Tactics assignment at the 1721st Combat Control Squadron, Pope AFB, North Carolina. Next, Chapman spent three years at the 320th Special Tactics Squadron in Okinawa, Japan. Later, as a top performer in his career field, he was selectively hired for a special duty assignment at the 24th Special Tactics Squadron. There, as a team leader, Chapman prepared personnel for their roles as Special Tactics operators on the battlefield, conducting precision strike, personnel recovery, and global access with special operations teams around the world.
Chapman was specially trained and equipped for immediate deployment into combat operations. Trained to infiltrate in combat and austere environments, he was an experienced static line and military free fall jumper, and combat diver. Additionally, he earned jumpmaster and dive supervisor qualifications. Chapman was an expert in reconnaissance operations, air traffic control and terminal attack control operations, where he decisively integrated airpower on to the battlefield. While deployed, he directed close air support aircraft, delivering destructive ordnance on enemy targets in non-permissive environments.
Chapman's awards and decorations include the Air Force Cross, Purple Heart, Air Force Commendation Medal with one device, Joint Service Achievement Medal with one device, Air Force Achievement Medal with one device, Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with two devices, Air Force Good Conduct Medal with four devices, National Defense Service Medal, Air Force Longevity Service Award with three devices, Non-Commissioned Officer Professional Military Education ribbon, Small Arms Expert Marksmanship ribbon, and the Air Force Training ribbon.
Chapman was a dedicated father and husband. He truly was a family man; even when he was away from home, his daughters were the center of his world, a common attribute of Special Tactics operators. John enjoyed hunting with his father and brother, working on project cars with friends, and was an avid woodworker.
Chapman is survived by his wife, Valerie Nessel and their two daughters, Madison, and Brianna; his mother, Terry Chapman; step-mother, Tess Chapman; sisters Lori Longfritz and Tammy Klein, and brother, Kevin. At the time of his death, Chapman was survived by his father, Eugene Chapman, who has since passed away.
Airmen live their lives based on the core values of integrity first, service before self, and excellence in all we do. It was these values that Tech. Sgt. Chapman demonstrated in combat alongside his joint partners during decisive and defining moments on a hill in Afghanistan more than 14 years ago. He will forever serve as an example of what it means to be an Airman for us all.
– Secretary of the Air Force Heather Wilson
Tech. Sgt. John Chapman's inspiring story is one of selfless service, courage, perseverance, and honor and he represents all that is good, all that is right, and all that is best in our American Airmen. He is a true American hero.
– Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. David L. Goldfein
We have a sacred duty to honor the actions and sacrifices of all our Airmen. I share our Airmen's deepest gratitude to the Chapman family, as well as the family members of all those who gave their lives serving our great nation.
– Chief Master Sgt. of the Air Force Kaleth O. Wright
Medal of Honor Facts